It seems likely, though it is still unproven, that this breakup of a single landmass and the drifting of its fragments is merely the latest in a series of similar occurrences throughout geologic time. Evidence for Continental Drift Wegener gathered evidence for his hypothesis from fossils, from studies of ancient climate, and from the geology of continents. Eventually, however, scientists made more observations, assembling the modern theory of plate tectonics. 8 0 obj That continent eventually separated and drifted apart, forming into the seven continents we have today. At… Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Although Wegener's "continental drift" theory was later disproved, it was one of the first times that the idea of crustal movement had been introduced to the scientific community; and it laid the groundwork for the development of modern plate tectonics. These ridges and trenches are scars from opening up of plates at ridges. In the early 20th century, Wegener published a paper explaining his theory that the continental landmasses were “drifting” across the Earth, sometimes plowing through oceans and into each other. "F$H:R��!z��F�Qd?r9�\A&�G���rQ��h������E��]�a�4z�Bg�����E#H �*B=��0H�I��p�p�0MxJ$�D1��D, V���ĭ����KĻ�Y�dE�"E��I2���E�B�G��t�4MzN�����r!YK� ���?%_&�#���(��0J:EAi��Q�(�()ӔWT6U@���P+���!�~��m���D�e�Դ�!��h�Ӧh/��']B/����ҏӿ�?a0n�hF!��X���8����܌k�c&5S�����6�l��Ia�2c�K�M�A�!�E�#��ƒ�d�V��(�k��e���l ����}�}�C�q�9 All continents were together as a supercontinent (Pangaea). Describe how rock clues were used to support the hypothesis of continental drift. The continental drift hypothesis was developed in the early part of the 20th century, mostly by Alfred Wegener. The continents are distributed at different latitudes, and latitudinal position affects the temperature of oceanic waters along continental margins (the combined area of the continental shelf and continental slope); in short, sedimentary deposition is climatically sensitive. �ꇆ��n���Q�t�}MA�0�al������S�x ��k�&�^���>�0|>_�'��,�G! The idea of continental drift was not accepted easily by the scientific establishment. endobj Wegener's drift theory seemed more plausible than land bridges connecting all of the continents. c. How does glaciation support the Continental Drift Idea? Explain how Wegener used climate clues to support his hypothesis of continental drift. Even though Wegener assembled many interlocking pieces of evidence to support his ideas, they were so radical that he was often ridiculed. The concept was independently and more fully developed by Alfred Wegener in 1912, but his hypothesis was rejected … signs that glaciers existed in South Africa Which evidence suggests that Africa, Antarctica, South America, India, and Australia formed Gondwanaland 200 million years ago? H���yTSw�oɞ����c [���5la�QIBH�ADED���2�mtFOE�.�c��}���0��8�׎�8G�Ng�����9�w���߽��� �'����0 �֠�J��b� What evidence of climate change on continents supports the theory of continental drift? Describe the type of plate boundary that forms mountains and islands. The continental drift theory came to fruition in 1912 by a man named Alfred Wegener, who was a geophysicist and meteorologist. Another important piece of evidence in the Continental Drift theory is the fossil relevance. Climaterefers to a pattern of wind, temperature, and rain or snow that occurs in a region over time. 2. If you take a look at a map of the earth today, you will see the current locations of broken land masses that constitute the earth. Summarize the ways that fossils helped support the hypothesis of continental drift. The evidence for continental drift included the fit of the continents; the distribution of ancient fossils, rocks, and mountain ranges; and the locations of ancient climate zones. Thanks Wegener collected ancient climate information to confirm his glacial data. Where this is the case, the lithospheric plates separate, and the upwelling mantle material forms new ocean floor along the trailing edges. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Also, fitting the Americas with the continents across the Atlantic brings together similar kinds of rocks, fossils, and geologic structures. In 1912 a German meteorologist named Alfred Wegener (1880-1931) hypothesized a single proto-supercontinent that divided up into the continents we now know because of continental drift and plate tectonics. Scientists agree that continents rest on rocks called tectonic plates, which shift and move. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Omissions? Studies by Runcorn of the remanent magnetism in suitable rocks of different ages from Europe produced a “polar wandering curve” indicating that the magnetic poles were in different places at different times. Well, this claim was made in the 90s by Alfred Wegener, a German polar researcher, meteorologist and geophysicist who died in 1930. Explain how fossil plant and animal distribution supports the Continental Drift Idea. In proposing the theory of continental drift, Alfred Wegener relied on evidence from the shape of the continents, the distribution of plants and animals, similarities between landscapes, contiguous veins of ore that ran between continents, and the distribution of glacial deposits. n�3ܣ�k�Gݯz=��[=��=�B�0FX'�+������t���G�,�}���/���Hh8�m�W�2p[����AiA��N�#8$X�?�A�KHI�{!7�. %PDF-1.4 Explain the theory of continental drift. �x������- �����[��� 0����}��y)7ta�����>j���T�7���@���tܛ�`q�2��ʀ��&���6�Z�L�Ą?�_��yxg)˔z���çL�U���*�u�Sk�Se�O4?׸�c����.� � �� R� ߁��-��2�5������ ��S�>ӣV����d�`r��n~��Y�&�+`��;�A4�� ���A9� =�-�t��l�`;��~p���� �Gp| ��[`L��`� "A�YA�+��Cb(��R�,� *�T�2B-� Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Subsequent plate movements averaging about 2 cm (0.8 inch) per year have taken the continents to their present position. In 1912 German meteorologist Alfred Wegener, impressed by the similarity of the geography of the Atlantic... A discussion of some of the evidence supporting continental drift on Earth. Late in the Triassic Period (which lasted from approximately 251 million to 199.6 million years ago), Pangea fragmented, and the parts began to move away from one another. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/science/continental-drift-geology. Rock clues like these support the idea that the continents were connected in the past. Continental drift is the hypothesis that the Earth's continents have moved over geologic time relative to each other, thus appearing to have "drifted" across the ocean bed. However, these different paths are reconciled by joining the continents in the manner proposed by Wegener. Continental drift reduced the fraction of land in those arid areas and raised the fraction at temperate midlatitudes. In 1908 Frank B. Taylor of the United States invoked the notion of continental collision to explain the formation of some of the world’s mountain ranges. d Figure 12Glossopteris, Mesosaurus Fossils and rocks found on different continents provide evidence that Earth’s landmasses once were joined together in the supercontinent P… This concept was an important precursor to the development of the theory of plate tectonics, which incorporates it. The hypothesis asserts that the continents consist … This hypothesis is called Pangaea because the Greek word "pan" means "all" and Gaea or Gaia (or Ge) was the Greek name of the divine personification of the Earth. endobj For the glaciers to have been present with the continents in their current positions, much of the world should have been under ice. • Evidence of continental drift came from fossils, signs of climate change, and … <> 2y�.-;!���K�Z� ���^�i�"L��0���-�� @8(��r�;q��7�L��y��&�Q��q�4�j���|�9�� Increased knowledge about the configuration of the ocean floor and the subsequent formulation of the concepts of seafloor spreading and plate tectonics provided further support for continental drift. Interest in continental drift increased in the 1950s as knowledge of Earth’s geomagnetic field during the geologic past developed from the studies of the British geophysicists Stanley K. Runcorn, Patrick M.S. Wegener said that continents move around on Earth’s surface and that they were once joined together as a single supercontinent. But this wasn't the case. He dedicated much of his life to gathering evidence to support his theory including look-alike animal and plant fossils, and similar rock formations found on different continents. Oceanic ridges occur along some of the plate margins. Wegener also used continental drift to explain evidence … By the late 1960s, several American investigators, among them Jack E. Oliver and Bryan L. Isacks, had integrated this notion of seafloor spreading with that of drifting continents and formulated the basis of plate tectonic theory. Ferromagnetic minerals such as magnetite acquire a permanent magnetization when they crystallize as constituents of igneous rock. ��w�G� xR^���[�oƜch�g�`>b���$���*~� �:����E���b��~���,m,�-��ݖ,�Y��¬�*�6X�[ݱF�=�3�뭷Y��~dó ���t���i�z�f�6�~`{�v���.�Ng����#{�}�}��������j������c1X6���fm���;'_9 �r�:�8�q�:��˜�O:ϸ8������u��Jq���nv=���M����m����R 4 � Think Critically Why would you expect to see similar SECTION 1 Continental Drift Noting the apparent fit of the bulge of eastern South America into the bight of Africa, the German naturalist Alexander von Humboldt theorized about 1800 that the lands bordering the Atlantic Ocean had once been joined. According to the latter hypothesis, Earth’s surface, or lithosphere, is composed of a number of large, rigid plates that float on a soft (presumably partially molten) layer of the mantle known as the asthenosphere. The possibility that they might reflect true wander of the poles was discarded, because it implies separate wanderings of many magnetic poles over the same period. According to the theory of continental drift, the world was made up of a single continent through most of geologic time. When this occurs, the sea floor grows wider, pushing the two continents apart. Though the evidence for his hypothesis was strong, the theory lacked a mechanism and was not generally … 7 0 obj The first comprehensive theory of continental drift was suggested by the German meteorologist Alfred Wegener in 1912. Then, as now, the meridional circulation of air over the tropics creates a moist equatorial belt sandwiched between arid areas. There are various examples of fossils found on separate continents and in no other regions. But that in itself was not enough to support his idea. As molten rock rises from the Earth, it forms new crust between the plates. b. Explain how Wegener used climate clues to support his hypothesis of continental drift? parts of the Appalachian Mountain of the eastern US are similar to those found in Greenland and Western Europe. Explain the process that causes the Earth’s tectonic plates to move. While Wegener was alive, scientists did not believe that the continents could move.Find a map of the continents and cut each one out. Though most of … <> stream But geologists soundly denounced Wegener's theory of continental drift after he published the details in a 1915 book called \"The Origin of Continents and Oceans.\" Part of the opposition was because Wegener didn't have a good model to explain how the continents moved apart. The theories of continental drift and … This could be explained either by the migration of the magnetic pole itself (that is, polar wandering) or by the migration of Europe relative to a fixed pole (that is, continental drift). Updates? 6 0 obj In 1912 German meteorologist Alfred Wegener, impressed by the similarity of the geography of the Atlantic...…, The geologic evolution of Antarctica has followed a course similar to that of the other southern continents....…, …of sediments deposited today is continental drift. %���� During the early 1960s, the American geophysicist Harry H. Hess proposed that new oceanic crust is continually generated by igneous activity at the crests of oceanic ridges—submarine mountains that follow a sinuous course of about 65,000 km (40,000 miles) along the bottom of the major ocean basins. Continental drift, large-scale horizontal movements of continents relative to one another and to the ocean basins during one or more episodes of geologic time. 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Molten rock material from Earth’s mantle rises upward to the crests, cools, and is later pushed aside by new intrusions. Westward drift of the Americas opened the Atlantic Ocean, and the Indian block drifted across the Equator to merge with Asia. How did rocks and geologic structure support the Continental Drift Idea? The ocean floor is thus pushed at right angles and in opposite directions away from the crests. Another observation favoring continental drift was the presence of evidence for continental glaciation in the Pennsylvanian period. �V��)g�B�0�i�W��8#�8wթ��8_�٥ʨQ����Q�j@�&�A)/��g�>'K�� �t�;\�� ӥ$պF�ZUn����(4T�%)뫔�0C&�����Z��i���8��bx��E���B�;�����P���ӓ̹�A�om?�W= The first truly detailed and comprehensive theory of continental drift was proposed in 1912 by Alfred Wegener, a German meteorologist. The four pieces of evidence for the continental drift include continents fitting together like a puzzle, scattering ancient fossils, rocks, mountain ranges, and the old climatic zones' locations. They based their idea of continental drift on several lines of evidence: fit of the continents, paleoclimate indicators, truncated … 1. Some 50 years later, Antonio Snider-Pellegrini, a French scientist, argued that the presence of identical fossil plants in both North American and European coal deposits could be explained if the two continents had formerly been connected, a relationship otherwise difficult to account for. 4. Alfred Wegener, in the first three decades of this century, and DuToit in the 1920s and 1930s gathered evidence that the continents had moved. The theory of continental drift is most associated with the scientist Alfred Wegener. endobj d. Explain how climate supports the Continental Drift Idea Wegener supported his argument with five lines of evidence. However, further work showed that the polar wandering curves are different for the various continents. Summary Evidence for Continental Drift • Alfred Wegener proposed in his hypothesis of continental drift that all continents were once connected as one large landmass called Pangaea. He noticed that European coal fields match up with coal fields in North America. From their simulations, Charboreau and her collaborators could quantify that shift in climate. Wegener thought all the continents were once joined together in an \"Urkontinent\" before breaking up and drifting to their current positions. Click card to see definition Wegener hypothesized that Spitsbergen drifted from tropical regions to the arctic. Earth’s climates have changed many times in the planet’s long history. The continents are distributed at different latitudes,...…. He called this movement continental drift. If these continents were once united around the south polar region, this glaciation would become explicable as a unified sequence of events in time and space. Bringing together a large mass of geologic and paleontological data, Wegener postulated that throughout most of geologic time there was only one continent, which he called Pangea. Who proposed the theory and what evidence did he provide to prove his theory. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Identify and explain at least 4 … 2. The speculation that continents might have 'drifted' was first put forward by Abraham Ortelius in 1596. endobj The direction of their magnetization is the same as the direction of Earth’s magnetic field at the time and place of crystallization. <> It seems likely, though it is still unproven, that this breakup of a single landmass and the drifting of its fragments is merely the latest in a series of similar occurrences throughout geologic time. Evidence for Continental Drift Wegener gathered evidence for his hypothesis from fossils, from studies of ancient climate, and from the geology of continents. Eventually, however, scientists made more observations, assembling the modern theory of plate tectonics. 8 0 obj That continent eventually separated and drifted apart, forming into the seven continents we have today. At… Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Although Wegener's "continental drift" theory was later disproved, it was one of the first times that the idea of crustal movement had been introduced to the scientific community; and it laid the groundwork for the development of modern plate tectonics. These ridges and trenches are scars from opening up of plates at ridges. In the early 20th century, Wegener published a paper explaining his theory that the continental landmasses were “drifting” across the Earth, sometimes plowing through oceans and into each other. "F$H:R��!z��F�Qd?r9�\A&�G���rQ��h������E��]�a�4z�Bg�����E#H �*B=��0H�I��p�p�0MxJ$�D1��D, V���ĭ����KĻ�Y�dE�"E��I2���E�B�G��t�4MzN�����r!YK� ���?%_&�#���(��0J:EAi��Q�(�()ӔWT6U@���P+���!�~��m���D�e�Դ�!��h�Ӧh/��']B/����ҏӿ�?a0n�hF!��X���8����܌k�c&5S�����6�l��Ia�2c�K�M�A�!�E�#��ƒ�d�V��(�k��e���l ����}�}�C�q�9 All continents were together as a supercontinent (Pangaea). Describe how rock clues were used to support the hypothesis of continental drift. The continental drift hypothesis was developed in the early part of the 20th century, mostly by Alfred Wegener. The continents are distributed at different latitudes, and latitudinal position affects the temperature of oceanic waters along continental margins (the combined area of the continental shelf and continental slope); in short, sedimentary deposition is climatically sensitive. �ꇆ��n���Q�t�}MA�0�al������S�x ��k�&�^���>�0|>_�'��,�G! The idea of continental drift was not accepted easily by the scientific establishment. endobj Wegener's drift theory seemed more plausible than land bridges connecting all of the continents. c. How does glaciation support the Continental Drift Idea? Explain how Wegener used climate clues to support his hypothesis of continental drift. Even though Wegener assembled many interlocking pieces of evidence to support his ideas, they were so radical that he was often ridiculed. The concept was independently and more fully developed by Alfred Wegener in 1912, but his hypothesis was rejected … signs that glaciers existed in South Africa Which evidence suggests that Africa, Antarctica, South America, India, and Australia formed Gondwanaland 200 million years ago? H���yTSw�oɞ����c [���5la�QIBH�ADED���2�mtFOE�.�c��}���0��8�׎�8G�Ng�����9�w���߽��� �'����0 �֠�J��b� What evidence of climate change on continents supports the theory of continental drift? Describe the type of plate boundary that forms mountains and islands. The continental drift theory came to fruition in 1912 by a man named Alfred Wegener, who was a geophysicist and meteorologist. Another important piece of evidence in the Continental Drift theory is the fossil relevance. Climaterefers to a pattern of wind, temperature, and rain or snow that occurs in a region over time. 2. If you take a look at a map of the earth today, you will see the current locations of broken land masses that constitute the earth. Summarize the ways that fossils helped support the hypothesis of continental drift. The evidence for continental drift included the fit of the continents; the distribution of ancient fossils, rocks, and mountain ranges; and the locations of ancient climate zones. Thanks Wegener collected ancient climate information to confirm his glacial data. Where this is the case, the lithospheric plates separate, and the upwelling mantle material forms new ocean floor along the trailing edges. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Also, fitting the Americas with the continents across the Atlantic brings together similar kinds of rocks, fossils, and geologic structures. In 1912 a German meteorologist named Alfred Wegener (1880-1931) hypothesized a single proto-supercontinent that divided up into the continents we now know because of continental drift and plate tectonics. Scientists agree that continents rest on rocks called tectonic plates, which shift and move. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Omissions? Studies by Runcorn of the remanent magnetism in suitable rocks of different ages from Europe produced a “polar wandering curve” indicating that the magnetic poles were in different places at different times. Well, this claim was made in the 90s by Alfred Wegener, a German polar researcher, meteorologist and geophysicist who died in 1930. Explain how fossil plant and animal distribution supports the Continental Drift Idea. In proposing the theory of continental drift, Alfred Wegener relied on evidence from the shape of the continents, the distribution of plants and animals, similarities between landscapes, contiguous veins of ore that ran between continents, and the distribution of glacial deposits. n�3ܣ�k�Gݯz=��[=��=�B�0FX'�+������t���G�,�}���/���Hh8�m�W�2p[����AiA��N�#8$X�?�A�KHI�{!7�. %PDF-1.4 Explain the theory of continental drift. �x������- �����[��� 0����}��y)7ta�����>j���T�7���@���tܛ�`q�2��ʀ��&���6�Z�L�Ą?�_��yxg)˔z���çL�U���*�u�Sk�Se�O4?׸�c����.� � �� R� ߁��-��2�5������ ��S�>ӣV����d�`r��n~��Y�&�+`��;�A4�� ���A9� =�-�t��l�`;��~p���� �Gp| ��[`L��`� "A�YA�+��Cb(��R�,� *�T�2B-� Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Subsequent plate movements averaging about 2 cm (0.8 inch) per year have taken the continents to their present position. In 1912 German meteorologist Alfred Wegener, impressed by the similarity of the geography of the Atlantic... A discussion of some of the evidence supporting continental drift on Earth. Late in the Triassic Period (which lasted from approximately 251 million to 199.6 million years ago), Pangea fragmented, and the parts began to move away from one another. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/science/continental-drift-geology. Rock clues like these support the idea that the continents were connected in the past. Continental drift is the hypothesis that the Earth's continents have moved over geologic time relative to each other, thus appearing to have "drifted" across the ocean bed. However, these different paths are reconciled by joining the continents in the manner proposed by Wegener. Continental drift reduced the fraction of land in those arid areas and raised the fraction at temperate midlatitudes. In 1908 Frank B. Taylor of the United States invoked the notion of continental collision to explain the formation of some of the world’s mountain ranges. d Figure 12Glossopteris, Mesosaurus Fossils and rocks found on different continents provide evidence that Earth’s landmasses once were joined together in the supercontinent P… This concept was an important precursor to the development of the theory of plate tectonics, which incorporates it. The hypothesis asserts that the continents consist … This hypothesis is called Pangaea because the Greek word "pan" means "all" and Gaea or Gaia (or Ge) was the Greek name of the divine personification of the Earth. endobj For the glaciers to have been present with the continents in their current positions, much of the world should have been under ice. • Evidence of continental drift came from fossils, signs of climate change, and … <> 2y�.-;!���K�Z� ���^�i�"L��0���-�� @8(��r�;q��7�L��y��&�Q��q�4�j���|�9�� Increased knowledge about the configuration of the ocean floor and the subsequent formulation of the concepts of seafloor spreading and plate tectonics provided further support for continental drift. Interest in continental drift increased in the 1950s as knowledge of Earth’s geomagnetic field during the geologic past developed from the studies of the British geophysicists Stanley K. Runcorn, Patrick M.S. Wegener said that continents move around on Earth’s surface and that they were once joined together as a single supercontinent. But this wasn't the case. He dedicated much of his life to gathering evidence to support his theory including look-alike animal and plant fossils, and similar rock formations found on different continents. Oceanic ridges occur along some of the plate margins. Wegener also used continental drift to explain evidence … By the late 1960s, several American investigators, among them Jack E. Oliver and Bryan L. Isacks, had integrated this notion of seafloor spreading with that of drifting continents and formulated the basis of plate tectonic theory. Ferromagnetic minerals such as magnetite acquire a permanent magnetization when they crystallize as constituents of igneous rock. ��w�G� xR^���[�oƜch�g�`>b���$���*~� �:����E���b��~���,m,�-��ݖ,�Y��¬�*�6X�[ݱF�=�3�뭷Y��~dó ���t���i�z�f�6�~`{�v���.�Ng����#{�}�}��������j������c1X6���fm���;'_9 �r�:�8�q�:��˜�O:ϸ8������u��Jq���nv=���M����m����R 4 � Think Critically Why would you expect to see similar SECTION 1 Continental Drift Noting the apparent fit of the bulge of eastern South America into the bight of Africa, the German naturalist Alexander von Humboldt theorized about 1800 that the lands bordering the Atlantic Ocean had once been joined. According to the latter hypothesis, Earth’s surface, or lithosphere, is composed of a number of large, rigid plates that float on a soft (presumably partially molten) layer of the mantle known as the asthenosphere. The possibility that they might reflect true wander of the poles was discarded, because it implies separate wanderings of many magnetic poles over the same period. According to the theory of continental drift, the world was made up of a single continent through most of geologic time. When this occurs, the sea floor grows wider, pushing the two continents apart. Though the evidence for his hypothesis was strong, the theory lacked a mechanism and was not generally … 7 0 obj The first comprehensive theory of continental drift was suggested by the German meteorologist Alfred Wegener in 1912. Then, as now, the meridional circulation of air over the tropics creates a moist equatorial belt sandwiched between arid areas. There are various examples of fossils found on separate continents and in no other regions. But that in itself was not enough to support his idea. As molten rock rises from the Earth, it forms new crust between the plates. b. Explain how Wegener used climate clues to support his hypothesis of continental drift? parts of the Appalachian Mountain of the eastern US are similar to those found in Greenland and Western Europe. Explain the process that causes the Earth’s tectonic plates to move. While Wegener was alive, scientists did not believe that the continents could move.Find a map of the continents and cut each one out. Though most of … <> stream But geologists soundly denounced Wegener's theory of continental drift after he published the details in a 1915 book called \"The Origin of Continents and Oceans.\" Part of the opposition was because Wegener didn't have a good model to explain how the continents moved apart. The theories of continental drift and … This could be explained either by the migration of the magnetic pole itself (that is, polar wandering) or by the migration of Europe relative to a fixed pole (that is, continental drift). Updates? 6 0 obj In 1912 German meteorologist Alfred Wegener, impressed by the similarity of the geography of the Atlantic...…, The geologic evolution of Antarctica has followed a course similar to that of the other southern continents....…, …of sediments deposited today is continental drift. %���� During the early 1960s, the American geophysicist Harry H. Hess proposed that new oceanic crust is continually generated by igneous activity at the crests of oceanic ridges—submarine mountains that follow a sinuous course of about 65,000 km (40,000 miles) along the bottom of the major ocean basins. Continental drift, large-scale horizontal movements of continents relative to one another and to the ocean basins during one or more episodes of geologic time. For example, when Wegener pieced together maps of Africa and South America, he noticed that mountain ranges on both continents line up. <> The curves for Europe and North America, for example, are reconciled by the assumption that the latter has drifted about 30° westward relative to Europe since the Triassic Period. Corrections? a. Aside from the congruency of continental shelf margins across the Atlantic, modern proponents of continental drift have amassed impressive geologic evidence to support their views. Directions away from the crests Spitsbergen drifted from tropical regions to the arctic Figure,! A large-scale displacement of continents has a long history this email, you are agreeing to news,,! Rock rises from the crests, cools, and rain or snow occurs! Fossils, and is later pushed aside by new intrusions, temperature and. In Figure 12, mountains and islands login ) put forward by Abraham Ortelius in 1596 his glacial.! 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